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K'inich Toob'il Yopaat

K'INICH-to-b'i-li YOPAAT-ti. Drawing after Martin and Grube (2000). Transcription by Simon Martin (personal communication 2002).


Maya ruler of Caracol; also known as Ruler X, Ruler XI, Lord Quincunx and K'inich Toob'il Yoaat. Reigned >810-830>.

Acceded: 9.18.13.10.19?, 9 Kawak? 7 Sip (March 6, 804?).

Monuments: Stelae 8?,18 and 19; Altars 12, 13, 16? and 22?; Mountain Cow Altar 2.

The Terminal Classic florescence that began when this king's immediate predecessor broke the silence of Caracol's Hiatus in AD 798 continued under K'inich Toob'il Yopaat (Martin and Grube 2000:96-98). It effectively ended with what might well be another of his monuments, the "giant ajaw" altar marking the end of the tenth bak'tun (10.0.0.0.0; March 830) (ibid.:99). During the intervening years, Caracol seems to have escaped the collapse that had already befallen many other kingdoms (ibid.:99).

This reign innovated stylistic changes in sculpture, among them multi-figural, "conversational" scenes (ibid.:98-99). These latter suggest that kings were now having to share power (a sign, perhaps, that even in its renaissance all was not as it once had been in Caracol) (ibid.:99). Altar 12 shows Toob'il Yopaat conversing with a lord of Ucanal named Papamalil (ibid.:99). Twenty years earlier (in AD 800) another lord of Ucanal had been captured by Toob'il Yopaat's predecessor (ibid.:97). Now the two kingdoms were effectively allied, although the exact nature of the relationship is unclear (ibid.:99). In addition to jointly participating in ceremonies at both sites, the two lords fought some of the last military campaigns known for the Classic Maya; Altar 13 shows them standing over a prisoner named Makal Te' (ibid.:99).

Papamalil is also named in the stucco glyphs that Toob'il Yopaat set in the front of Temple B-18 on the Caana platform (ibid.:99). Also bearing on the Ucanal relationship, Altar 12 records that Tum Yohl K'inich of Caracol performed a ceremony there, possibly in 793 (ibid.:99).

Except for the revision of the name Yoaat to Yopaat (Simon Martin, personal communication 2002), the foregoing is based on Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens by Simon Martin and Nikolai Grube (2000:96-99). Their sources include David Stuart (personal communication 1999) on Yopaat versus Yoaat in the ruler's name.